School of Environment, Resources and Development, (SERD)

The objective of this course is to strengthen the analytical skill for spatial planning. This provides applications of various quantitative techniques to point, line and area problems with right selection of data types. Mapping techniques are also covered and integrated with other quantitative techniques to display phenomena by point, line and area attributes. Location models of economic activities, various techniques and methods of regionalization, settlement pattern and locational analysis of service centres, gravity potential and interaction model, regional transport network analysis, and population projection techniques are the important components of this course. This course serves as a methodological training of the regional and rural development planners. 

On completion of this course, student will be able to:

           Explain and apply regional planning tools and techniques in identifying planning issues and problems,
           Prioritize the needs, problems and potentials,
           Rationalize the solutions for making planning decision, and
           Forecast the future while preparing the development plan either at the local or regional levels.


I.            Models of Location of Economic Activities
1.    Von Thunen's Model of Agricultural Land Use and Other Related Contributions
2.    Industrial Location Theories (Weber, Palander, Hoover, Losch, Isard and Smith)
3.    Central Place Theory (Christaller and Losch)

II.           Data Base for Regional and Rural Development Planning
1.    Organizing Databases (Source and Types) at the Provincial, District and Sub-district Levels
2.    Data Attributes and Problems Associated with the Planning Related Databases
3.    Developing an Integrated Database with focus on Data Producers, Managers and Users from Local to National Levels
4.    Developing Indicators for Measuring Levels of Development, Different Forms of Expression of Indicators, Sectoral and Spatial Indicators

III.           Making and Use of Maps
1.    Visual Variables and Cartographic Techniques
2.    Principles of Mapping
3.    Isopleth and Choropleth Mapping with Different Grouping Techniques
4.    Preparation of Base Map, Map Layout, Design and Production

IV.          Methods and Techniques of Regionalization
1.    Concept and Types of Region
2.    Purpose of Regionalisation, Selection of Indicators with reference to Unit of Analysis, and Standardisation Techniques
3.    Methods and Techniques for Preparing Composite Indices (Mapping Technique, Reiley’s Law of Gravitation Technique, Ranking Method, Subjective and Objective Weighting Techniques and other Quantitative Techniques)
4.    Regionalisation Principles and Identification of Regions

V.           Settlement Pattern and Centrographic Analysis:
1.    Application of Nearest Neighbor Statistics and Chi-Square Test for Identifying the Settlement Pattern
2.    Identification of Central Places (Geographical centre, Mean Settlement Canter, and Mean Population Center)
VI.          Locational Analysis and Identification of Service Centres
1.    Conceptual Framework
2.    Techniques for Identification of Rural Service Centers (Guttman's Scalogram Technique, Ranking Method, Sociogram Method, Subjective Weighing Technique, Threshold Population Analysis (Entry Point Population Method, Median Population Method, Mean Population Method and Location Co-Efficient Method).

VII.         Gravity Potential and Interaction Model and its Application in Rural-Regional Planning
1.    Population Potential and Interaction Model
2.    Isard’s Probability Model
3.    Market and Economic Potential
4.    Applications (Regionalization, Estimation of Migration, Transport Trip Distribution)

VIII.        Regional Transport Network Analysis (Graph Theoretic Measures of Transport Development)
1.     Degree of Connectivity
2.     Alpha, Beta, Gamma Indices
3.     Degree of Development (Pi Index)
4.     Detour Index and Degree of Circuity
5.     Preparation of Composite Index to Measure Transport Development

IX.          Techniques of Population Projection
1.     Arithmetic Progression
2.     Geometric Progression
3.     Gibbs Method
4.     Registrar General of India Method
5.     Regression Analysis
1.         Reviewing different types of databases of a country and associated problems, and developing local level planning database.
2.         Preparation of Choropleth and Isopleth maps using various data grouping techniques.
3.         Identification of regions based on selected development indicators and techniques.
4.         Settlement pattern analysis with identification of central places
5.         Forecasting population and analysing population growth by different methods
No designated textbook, but class notes and handouts will be provided.
1.         D. M. Smith: Industrial Location: An Economic Geographical Analysis, 2nd Edition New York, Wiley, 1981.
2.         Basic Cartography, Vol. I & II, International Cartographic Association, 1984.
3.         P. Muchreke: Map Use (Reading, Analysis and Interpretation), J.P. Publications, Madison, WI, 1986.
4.         Avrom Bendavid-Val: Regional and Local Economic Analysis for Practioners, Westport, CT: Prager Publishers, 1991.
5.         J. K. Routray: Data Base: An Aid to GIS Application for Decentralized Micro-Level Planning in Developing Countries, Indian Experience, 1990.
6.         ESCAP: Guidelines for Preparing Subnational Population Projections, UNO, ESCAP, 1975.
7.         Peter Haggett, Geography (A Global Synthesis), Prentice Hall, 2001.

1.         Geographical Analysis, Wiley
2.         Area, Blackwell
3.         Applied Geography, Elsevier
4.         International Journal of Geographical Information Science, Taylor & Francis 
The total number of classes for this curse is 75. Lecture hours cover about 60% and lab assignments cover 40% of the total classes.
Week 1 to 3: Lecture and discussion on Component I
Week 4 to 6: Lecture and discussion on Components II and III (partly), and Assignment
Week 7 to 9: Lecture and discussion on Components III, IV, and Assignment
Week 10 to 12: Lecture and discussion on Components V, VI, and VII, and Assignments

Week 13 to 15: Lecture and discussion on Components VII and IX, and Assignments

Include lectures, classroom exercises and worked out examples for solving problems, individual home assignments and quiz test.

The final grade will be computed according to the following weight distribution: quiz test (20%), mid-term exam: (20%), assignments (30%) and final exam (30%). Closed-book examinations are given both in the mid-term and final exams.
Details about relative grading system as follows:
A (more than 85%): Thorough understanding, application of techniques, and interpretation of results
B+ (75 to 85%): Good understanding and applications
B (65 to 75%):  Understanding with limited applications
C+ (55 to 75%): Partial understanding and limited applications
C (45 to 55%): Below average

D: Deficient in all respect